Turkey

Etymology

Main article: Name of Turkey

The name of Turkey (TurkishTürkiye) is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century).[29] The English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia.[30]

The Greek cognate of this name, Tourkia (GreekΤουρκία) was used by the Byzantine emperor and scholar Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his book De Administrando Imperio,[31][32] though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars.[33] Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the northern shores of the Black and Caspian seas, was referred to as Tourkia (Land of the Turks) in Byzantine sources.[34]The Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its contemporaries.[35]

History

Main article: History of Turkey

Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace

 
The Lion Gate in Hattusa, capital of the Hittite Empire. The city's history dates back to the 6th millennium BC.[36]

The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the conquest of Alexander the Great.[9] Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family.[37] In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwianlanguages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages radiated.[38] The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has also been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, and is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 B.C. with its inhabitants starting the practice of agriculture.[10]

Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to 10,000 BC,[39] while Çatalhöyük is a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date and in July 2012 was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[40] The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age.[41]

The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as ca. 2300 BC. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians ca. 2000–1700 BC. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC.[42][43] Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC as a powerful northern rival of Assyria.[44]

Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC.[45] Starting from 714 BC, Urartu shared the same fate and dissolved in 590 BC,[46] when it was conquered by the Medes. The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were LydiaCaria and Lycia.[47]

Antiquity and Byzantine Period

Main articles: Classical Anatolia and Byzantine Anatolia
 
Originally a church, later a mosque, and now a museum, the Hagia Sophiain Istanbul was built by the Byzantinesin the 6th century.

Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as MiletusEphesusSmyrna and Byzantium, the latter founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC. The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC. In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I.[48]

All of modern-day Turkey was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th century BC.[49] The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, dates back to the Achaemenid rule in Anatolia. The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC,[50] which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area.[9] Following Alexander's death in 323 BC, Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms, all of which became part of the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BC.[51] The process of Hellenization that began with Alexander's conquest accelerated under Roman rule, and by the early centuries AD the local Anatolian languages and cultures had become extinct, being largely replaced by ancient Greek language and culture.[11][52]

In 324, Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome. Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent division of the Roman Empire between his two sons, the city, which would popularly come to be known as Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. This, which would later be branded by historians as the Byzantine Empire, ruled most of the territory of what is today Turkey until the Late Middle Ages,[53] although much of the territory remained a playground where the frequent Byzantine-Sassanid Wars razed, until the first half of the 7th century.

The Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire

Main articles: Seljuk dynasty and Ottoman dynasty
 
Mevlana Museum in Konya was built by the Seljuk Turks in 1274. Konya was the capital of the Sultanate of Rum.[54]

The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Kınık Oğuz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy, to the north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, in the 9th century.[55] In the 10th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homeland into Persia, which became the administrative core of the Great Seljuk Empire.[56]

In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into medieval Armenia and the eastern regions of Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, starting theTurkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.[57] Alongside the Turkification of the territory, the culturally Persianized Seljuks set the basis for a Turko-Persian principal culture in Anatolia,[58]which their eventual successors, the Ottomans would take over.[59][60]

In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would, over the next 200 years, evolve into the Ottoman Empire. In 1453, the Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capitalConstantinople.[61]

Topkapı and Dolmabahçe palaces were the primary residences of theOttoman Sultans and the administrative center of the empire between 1465 to 1856[62] and 1856 to 1922,[63] respectively.

In 1514, Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) successfully expanded the empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran. In 1517, Selim I expanded Ottoman rule into Algeria and Egypt, and created a naval presence in the Red Sea. Subsequently, a competition started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean was perceived as a threat for the Ottoman monopoly over the ancient trading routes between East Asia and Western Europe (later collectively named the Silk Road). This important monopoly was increasingly compromised following the discovery of a sea route around Africa by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, which had a considerable impact on the Ottoman economy.[64]

The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[65] At sea, the Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues (composed primarily of Habsburg Spain, theRepublic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy) for control of the Mediterranean Sea. In the east, the Ottomans were often at war withSafavid Persia over conflicts stemming from territorial disputes or religious differences between the 16th and 18th centuries.[66] These wars were later continued as the ZandAfsharid, and Qajar dynasties succeeded the Safavids in Iran, until the first half of the 19th century. From the 16th century till the early 20th century, the Ottomans and Russian Empire also fought many wars, initially about Ottoman territorial consolidation in southeastern Europe, but quickly already about mere Ottoman survival as an empire. Between the 16th and first half of the 19th century, the Ottomans, Persians, and Russians were all neighbouring rivals of each other.

From the beginning of the 19th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. As it gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth, many Balkan Muslims migrated to the Empire's heartland in Anatolia,[67][68] along with the Circassians fleeing the Russian conquest of the Caucasus. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to a rise in nationalist sentiment among the various subject peoples, leading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians.[69]

The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, the empire's Armenians were deported from Eastern Anatolia to Syria as part of the Armenian Genocide. As a result, an estimated 1,500,000 Armenians were killed.[70][71][72][73] The Turkish government denies that there was an Armenian Genocide and claims that Armenians were only relocated from the eastern war zone.[74] Large-scale massacres were also committed against the empire's other minority groups such as the Assyrians and Greeks.[75][76][77] Following the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought to partition the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres.[61]

Republic of Turkey

See also: Atatürk's Reforms
 
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic.

The occupation of Constantinople and Smyrna by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish National Movement.[78] Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.[79]

By 18 September 1922, the occupying armies were expelled, and the Ankara-based Turkish regime, which declared itself the legitimate government of the country in April 1920, started to formalize the legal transition from the old Ottoman into the new Republican political system. On 1 November 1922, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of monarchical Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the continuing state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923 in Ankara, the country's new capital.[80] The Lausanne treaty stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey.[81]

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of transforming the old Ottoman-Turkish state into a new secular republic.[82] With the Surname Law of 1934, the Turkish Parliament bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks).[79]

Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II, but entered the closing stages of the war on the side of the Allies on 23 February 1945. On 26 June 1945, Turkey became a charter member of the United Nations.[83]Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic support. Both countries were included in the Marshall Plan and OEEC for rebuilding European economies in 1948,[84] and subsequently became founding members of the OECD in 1961.[85]

After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of Cypriot intercommunal violenceand the coup in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 staged by the EOKA B paramilitary organization, which overthrew President Makarios and installed the pro-Enosis (union with Greece) Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July 1974.[86] Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey, was established.[87]

The single-party period ended in 1945. It was followed by a tumultuous transition to multiparty democracy over the next few decades, which was interrupted by military coups d'état in 19601971, and 1980, as well as a military memorandum in 1997.[88][89] In 1984, the PKK, a Kurdish separatist group, began an insurgency campaign against the Turkish government, which to date has claimed over 40,000 lives.[90] Peace talks are ongoing.[91][92] Since the liberalization of the Turkish economy during the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability.[93] In 2013, widespread protests erupted in many Turkish provinces, sparked by a plan to demolish Gezi Park but growing into general anti-government dissent.[94]

Administrative divisions

Further information: Regions of Turkey and NUTS of Turkey

Turkey has a unitary structure in terms of administration and this aspect is one of the most important factors shaping the Turkish public administration. When three powers (executive, legislative and judiciary) are taken into account as the main functions of the state, local administrations have little power. In other words, there are no units called "states" in Turkey and the provinces and cities come after the central administration. Local administrations were established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the governors and city governors. Besides the governors and the city governors, other senior public officials are also appointed by the central government rather than appointed by mayors or elected by constituents.[95]

Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 923 districts.[96]

Turkey is also subdivided into 7 regions and 21 subregions for geographic, demographic and economic purposes; this does not refer to an administrative division.

Kalkan Kiralık Villa Kiralık Villa